Marie curie

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Marie Curie, née Maria Salomea Skłodowska, (born November 7, 1867, Warsaw, Congress Kingdom of Pol&, Russian Empire—died July 4, 1934, near Sallanches, France), Polish-born French physicist, famous for her work on radioactivity và twice a winner of the Nobel Prize. With Henri Becquerel and her husbvà, Pierre Curie, she was awarded the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics. She was the sole winner of the 1911 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. She was the first woman khổng lồ win a Nobel Prize, and she is the only woman lớn win the award in two different fields.


Working with her husband, Pierre Curie, Marie Curie discoveredpolonium andradium in 1898. In 1903 they won the Nobel Prize for Physics for discovering radioactivity. In 1911 she won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for isolating pure radium. Following work on X-rays during World War I, she studied radioactive sầu substances & their medical applications.


WithHenri Becquerel& her husband,Pierre Curie, Marie Curie was awarded the 1903Nobel Prize for Physics. She was the sole winner of the 1911Nobel Prize for Chemistry. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize and the only woman khổng lồ win the award in two different fields.


Marie Curie’s contributions to lớn physics were immense, not only in her own work, as indicated by her two Nobel Prizes, but also through her influence on subsequent generations of nuclear physicists và chemists. Her work paved the way for the discovery of the neutron & artificial radioactivity.


Early life

From childhood she was remarkable for her prodigious memory, và at the age of 16 she won a gold medal on completion of her secondary education at the Russian lycée. Because her father, a teacher of mathematics và physics, lost his savings through bad investment, she had khổng lồ take work as a teacher &, at the same time, took part clandestinely in the nationalist “miễn phí university,” reading in Polish to lớn women workers. At the age of 18 she took a post as governess, where she suffered an unhappy love sầu affair. From her earnings she was able to lớn finance her sister Bronisława’s medical studies in Paris, with the understanding that Bronisława would in turn later help her to lớn get an education.

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Hear author Alan Aldomain authority talking about Marie Curie who was the subject of his play “Radiance: The Passion of Marie Curie”
Alan Alda discussing the work of Marie Curie, the subject of his 2011 play Radiance: The Passion of Marie Curie.

In 1891 Skłodowska went khổng lồ Paris &, now using the name Marie, began lớn follow the lectures of Paul Appel, Gabriel Lippmann, và Edmond Bouty at the Sorbonne. There she met physicists who were already well known—Jean Perrin, Charles Maurain, and Aimé Cotton. Skłodowska worked far into the night in her student-quarters garret and virtually lived on bread & butter và tea. She came first in the licence of physical sciences in 1893. She began lớn work in Lippmann’s retìm kiếm laboratory and in 1894 was placed second in the licence of mathematical sciences. It was in the spring of that year that she met Pierre Curie.


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Their marriage (July 25, 1895) marked the start of a partnership that was soon to achieve sầu results of world significance, in particular the discovery of polonium (so called by Marie in honour of her native sầu land) in the summer of 1898 & that of radium a few months later. Following Henri Becquerel’s discovery (1896) of a new phenomenon (which she later called “radioactivity”), Marie Curie, looking for a subject for a thesis, decided lớn find out if the property discovered in uranium was to be found in other matter. She discovered that this was true for thorium at the same time as G.C. Schmidt did.


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Turning her attention to minerals, she found her interest drawn khổng lồ pitchblende, a mineral whose activity, superior lớn that of pure uranium, could be explained only by the presence in the ore of small quantities of an unknown substance of very high activity. Pierre Curie then joined her in the work that she had undertaken lớn resolve this problem and that led khổng lồ the discovery of the new elements, polonium and radium. While Pierre Curie devoted himself chiefly to lớn the physical study of the new radiations, Marie Curie struggled khổng lồ obtain pure radium in the metallic state—achieved with the help of the chemist André-Louis Debierne, one of Pierre Curie’s pupils. On the results of this retìm kiếm, Marie Curie received her doctorate of science in June 1903 và, with Pierre, was awarded the Davy Medal of the Royal Society. Also in 1903 they shared with Becquerel the Nobel Prize for Physics for the discovery of radioactivity.


French physicists Marie Curie (right), Pierre Curie (centre), & chemist Gustave sầu Bémont (left) in the laboratory.

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The birth of her two daughters, Irène & Ève sầu, in 1897 & 1904 did not interrupt Marie’s intensive scientific work. She was appointed lecturer in physics at the École Normale Supérieure for girls in Sèvres (1900) & introduced there a method of teaching based on experimental demonstrations. In December 1904 she was appointed chief assistant in the laboratory directed by Pierre Curie.


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